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Black squares with numbers correspond to wave gauge used for numerical simulations (Supplementary Table 4).Note limits of the Icod flank failure and Diego Hernandez—El Abrigo caldera in the background.
Upper unit B is also a coarse gravel, but it is slightly finer than unit A, matrix-supported, and considerably enriched in pumices relative to unit A.
Unit B is thus a pumiceous gravel, and its composition is much more varied than unit A: local-derived basalts are mixed with phonolites, hydrothermally altered rocks, syenites, obsidian and subangular pumices.
The dominant type of pumices is light-green coloured, highly vesiculated, and fibrous.
Coupling between a massive retrogressive flank failure and a large explosive eruption represents a new type of volcano-tectonic event on oceanic shield volcanoes and a new hazard scenario..
Marine conglomerates and megaclasts found at unusually high elevations in Hawaii, Cape Verde, Mauritius and Canary Islands were interpreted as being the result of tsunami waves generated by massive flank failures of oceanic shield volcanoes.
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2), due to the nature of the substratum underlying the tsunami deposits, and to the lateral and longitudinal discontinuity of the different tsunami units.