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In October 2013, the Ngok Dinka held a unilateral referendum, not backed by Juba, Khartoum, or international actors, in which they voted overwhelmingly to join South Sudan.The vote, however, changed little on the ground, and the territory remains a no man's land.In 2002, regional and international parties, including the United States, made a significant effort to help the parties develop a peace agreement. These regional and international efforts eventually led to a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005 by the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A.In March of that year, President Carter visited Khartoum in the North and Rumbek in southern Sudan, meeting with Bashir and SPLM/A leaders. The Center supported the negotiation process by providing training to both the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A and intervening in other ways to support the mediation effort led by the Inter-governmental Authority on Development.Even as peace was being achieved between the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A, conflict in the western region of Darfur escalated, attracting international attention.The war in Darfur continues and, in 2011, a new war broke out in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, two states in the southern part of the new Sudan.The Carter Center's Conflict Resolution Program has been involved in attempting to resolve these disputes through support to the Sudan-South Sudan Dialogue Group, which is composed of prominent civil society figures and aims at creating a peaceful dialogue between the two countries in order to further normalize relations.The contested area of Abyei, to which both Sudan and South Sudan lay claim, lies at the heart of current frictions.
During the course of the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), the internal conflict between the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A was complicated by hostilities between the Sudanese and Ugandan governments, stemming in part from alleged links between Kampala and the SPLM/A and between Khartoum and the Lord's Resistance Army.The Carter Center regularly meets with Sudanese actors and pays close attention to the ongoing conflicts in Sudan, as well as the National Dialogue, and is studying potential activities to help bring lasting peace.Since South Sudan's independence, South Sudan and Sudan have continued to experience tensions, primarily over the oil pipeline between the two countries, oil revenue, the disputed borderline, contested territories along the border, especially Abyei, and support to armed groups operating in the rival country.In February 2012, Sudan and South Sudan signed a Non-Aggression Pact, in which each agreed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the other. Security Council passed Resolution 2046 calling for an immediate cease-fire, the withdrawal of forces, and negotiations, and SPLA forces withdrew.However, in April, following skirmishes along the border, South Sudan seized the oil-producing area of Heglig. As tensions eased, in September 2012 the two governments signed a series of Cooperation Agreements on economic and oil matters, borders, nationality, and security.