Consolidating democracy in latin america
Schmitter and Karl 1991 echoes this view and further stresses that consolidated democracies will not be able, nor should be expected, to solve all sociopolitical problems.
On the other hand, Huntington 1993 not only demarcates the end of a transition using the “two-turnover” test but also posits that economic prosperity, a peaceful transition, and previous experience with democracy are all preconditions for successful consolidation.
For example, although there is no consensus on whether economic growth and prospects for democratization are positively linked, scholars generally agree that economic growth contributes to democratic consolidation.
Meanwhile, the role of civil society is as ambiguous in consolidation as it is in democratization.
Economic deterioration, political ossification, and rampant corruption had brought sustained decay, however, and paved the way for this radical populist, former army officer, and would-be (he had led a violent putsch that failed in February 1992) to decisively win the free and fair December 1998 balloting.
Others argue that consolidation is the result of deliberate choices made by political actors.Paradoxically, however, long-lasting democracies do not seem to be immune from a degradation in the quality of their democracy.Inspired by the recent rise of populist parties and candidates in some of the world’s oldest democracies, scholars have turned to studying the reasons for democratic rollback and deconsolidation.During that interval, no democracy had permanently succumbed to a military coup or slid back into authoritarian rule.After decades marked by instability in numerous countries, especially Argentina, Bolivia, and Ecuador, this newfound democratic resilience came as a welcome surprise.
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Although democratic consolidation can be the endpoint of democratization, it is important to understand that these two processes are generally driven by different factors (see the Oxford Bibliographies article on political science “Democratization”).