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Our results call for the modification of the conventional B1 biosynthesis model to incorporate c HET as a key precursor for B1 biosynthesis in two domains of life, and for consideration of c HET as a microbial micronutrient currency modulating marine primary productivity and community interactions in human gut-hosted microbiomes.

have been shown to be B1 auxotrophs – cumulatively highlighting the importance of exogenous B1 or related micronutrients to the operation of diverse ecosystems.

Bioinformatic surveys revealed that metagenomes from the human microbiome contain ~10× higher relative abundance of Thi M sequences than marine and terrestrial metagenomes (Supplementary Table S2), prompting the hypothesis that Thi M-possessing human-associated bacteria use exogenous c HET, in the same way as picoeukaryotic marine phytoplankton (Fig. Human-associated enteric bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 as well as (Supplementary Table S3), making Escherichia coli a suitable model for testing our hypothesis. coli mutant lacking Thi G (∆thi G), the enzyme that synthesizes the thiazole precursor of B1 in de novo biosynthesis, showed the bacterium is also adapted to use low concentrations of exogenous c HET, specifically down to subpicomolar concentrations (Fig. In contrast, ~1 million times more (100 n M) HET was necessary to support comparable growth (Fig.Almost all cells require thiamin, vitamin B1 (B1), which is synthesized via the coupling of thiazole and pyrimidine precursors.Here we demonstrate that 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazole-2-carboxylic acid (c HET) is a useful in vivo B1 precursor for representatives of ubiquitous marine picoeukaryotic phytoplankton and Escherichia coli – drawing attention to c HET as a valuable exogenous micronutrient for microorganisms with ecological, industrial, and biomedical value.Our results alter this paradigm as c HET is clearly useful for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, and moreover is accessible at extremely low concentrations (Figs 1, 2). Our findings also improve understanding of B1 biosynthesis in general - a vital process for life on Earth, and target for industrial and biomedical applications with human impact, e.g.Specifically, acquisition of exogenous c HET sustains key primary producers in the ocean as well as important enterobacteria, presumably enabling them to bypass the energetic and/or elemental costs of de novo biosynthesis of c HET(−P). efforts to increase crop nutritive value or resilience An updated metabolic map including c HET in B1 salvage and de novo biosynthesis pathways.

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